Poland, a country in Central Europe, is bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north. The total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres (120,726 sq mi), making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. Poland has a population of over 38 million people, which makes it the 34th most populous country in the world and the sixth most populous member of the European Union.

Polish folk dances tend to be lively, energetic, and joyful. Hops, twirls, and athletic movements are common. Many dances involve a circle (Polish: koło [ˈkɔwɔ] "circle", kołem [ˈkɔwɛm] "in a circle").

Clothing is usually colorful. In addition, women often wear coral necklaces, particularly red ones. They also decorate their hair with flowers or ribbons. In some regions, women may wear a hat or a loose headscarf. These are sometimes adorned with flowers or ribbons. Mens' hats may also feature decorations, particularly in southern regions.


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The Nightingale wrote a letter
on a willow leaf.
When he finished it the wind
interrupted the silence,
the Nightingale cut off the leaf and
carried it to spring and then sat on a pine.

Spring waved her hand
and the sun came out.
The Nightingale fluttered his feathers
and a song “dana, dana" burst forth
in the meadow on that morning.

The moon already bowed
with his light cap of clouds
when Spring took the leaf in her hands
and read the words which contained
the sadness and sorrow of the
Nightingale and the musical notes.